Beiuş and his country. You can not talk about Beiuş, notwithstanding the territory generically called Beiuşului country, with ancient historical resonance (pertinentia -districtum), constituting an oasis of developing both economic and socio-cultural aspects, without exaggerating, millennial value. Designed in upper basin of the river Crisul Negru, Beiuș is distinguished both by its geographical configuration and by its special historical evolution. Over the hills and valleys, surrounded by the girdle of the Apuseni Mountains, Beiușului Country is a unique place where seasonal flavors hide a scent of old experience, culture, civilization and strength in these lands. This individuality was formed during the centuries, through the peaceful coexistence of its culturally different inhabitants, with meanings and merits certified by the naming of the city in the rank of civitas and Oppidium (city free and fair), even by raising its inhabitants to the rank of nobility. Here, the presence of so many cultures and religions interacted in a constructive manner, and later, great founders of educational establishments have transformed this civitas hidden in the mountain valleys, into the leader of Romanian national culture in Transylvania and Romania.
Ancient traces of habitation date back to the Paleolithic, and all over Beiuşului Country, Neolithic settlements have been found. The splendid landscape of the Apuseni Mountains, the rolling hills, the river Crișul Repede and its tributaries, they all made the district of Beiuş to early become one of the most important in Bihor, both in size and organization. The troubled times of the first millennium have left no written records of life on these lands. Given the existing conditions for grazing and agriculture, people were organized in village communities, having the county elected head from their local population (Vlachos Blachi)and at that time leding their peaceful existence. The migration of people in the first centuries did not change significantly the system of organization and the strongest influences (Byzantine, Slavic), have led to the early Christian rite and its overlapping over the ancestral way of life. . In the second half of the first millennium, socio-economic development, the emergence of feudal relations of production have led to the first political-administrative formations on the territory represented by the principalities and voivodeships.
The Hungarian tribes set in the Pannonian Plain in the year 896 and thus have contact with the population gathered and organized in the Biharea (castrum Byhor) under the leadership of Menumorut, who conflicts with the messengers of the king Arpad. It was conquered difficultly because of its strategic position (after chronicle Gesta Hungarorum, Anonymus- 1150). The first indirect documentary sources about the lands of Beiuş occur after the founding of the Kingdom of Hungary in 1000. Strengthening the state entailed Hungarian population expansion and its colonization of Crișului and Beiuşului area, but this only resulted in coexistence and mutual accommodation of the two people. As a proof of cohabitation and not of assimilation, is the first mention of the Beiuşului Country, dated 1205, in the letter of Pope Innocent III, to the Archbishop of Kalocsa (Hungary), which indicates the existence of a Greek (Orthodox) rite with a bishop's residence and his desire to attract its followers to Catholicism, on the lands of the sons of Prince Bele (terra Filiorum Bele knese). The existence of this territory is strongly supported by local ruins of the Finiș, commonly referred to as "Belovar" or in Hungarian "Béla -vár" ( Bela City). We thus could explain the Hungarian name of Beiuş, Belenyesi, derived easily from Beleknes (na).
Knowing a number of changes in written documents from different historical moments, an exhaustive research over the city name would be too difficult : Benen (1291-1294); Benenes (1309); sacerdos the villa Belenus (1332); Belenesi (1333); voyuoda of Bivinis (1345); Belinis (1374); Belynes (1422); Belynes free civitas (1441); Oppidium Belynes (1451); Belenyesi (1602); oppiudium Belenyesi (1808); Beinşiu (1749); Beinsa (1828); Beinşiu (1844); Belenyesi (1857). After 1862, Romanian language uses exclusively the final form of Beiuş, ending a secular metamorphosis of the local toponymy, resulted both through development and through linguistic influences, or even through the ignorance caused by medieval chroniclers. It would be impossible not to mention the popular nomination Binș, omnipresent in contemporary idiom, which transcends the city name itself and is attributed to the whole Beiuşului region .
In the first half of the XII century, Beiuşului Country was a marginal area of the Hungarian crown, but this was without affecting the village communities life. A major change will occur after the establishment of the Catholic Diocese of Oradea (Diocese Varadinenses, 1067, having as a first bishop the named Hieronymus vel Alexius), and thus the gradual transition of the lands under the jurisdiction of the Catholic church, as fief, and the bishop as feudal lord. The great Tartar invasion in 1241 destroys almost completely Bihor areas, with extreme losses among the population (a description in detail was made by bishop Rogerius in "Carmen Miserabile"). In 1247, after years of reconstruction, and localities repopulated, the Catholic Diocese restarts its activity, and probably in the same year the Hungarian King Bela III gives as donation to the diocese the entire country of Beiuş. In the first acts of donation-pertinentia Belinis-, ie Beiuşului land, is registered with 677 gates. Romanian population will continue to use its own forms of organization -jus valachorum- with the new masters of the lands. The year 1257 brings the rebuilding of the fortress of Finiș by Bishop Vincent of Oradea, on the foundations of the castrum Belland, which together with those of Șoimi, Petid and Ginta, constituted a comprehensive system of fortifications on the Crișul Negru valley.
Finiș Fortress, owned by the Catholic bishop Benedict in 1294, was occupied by Roland Borsa, voieiod of Transylvania. Being afraid of an imminent attack of the royal army, Roland makes peace. In the act of truce, Romanians in Beiuşului depression are mentioned "as free men, with the same rights and soldierly rules as Hungarians ...".The organization and the management of the Romanians by their own princes is revealed in a document reproduced in Diplomaticus Hungariae Codex, dated 1263, which "testifies that … John of Beiuş prince and his brothers were reconciled with Nicholas, son of Cândea from Zlatna ".
The important position of the town, as the second city of residence for the Catholic Diocese of Oradea, is outlined frequently. In 1308, Bishop Emeric owned a house in Beiuş, where "he used to spend a lot of time" and was called "Nutrix nostrae curiae" translated - taking care (Nutrix - nurse) of our curia. 1404 was an important year, as we are reminded of the city of Beiuş with its castellans and its princes. On the hill where the Roman Catholic cemetery lays nowadays, the ruins of the ancient cathedral can still be found, built by Bishop Andrea Scolari in 1413, while granting privileges to the city, by calling it "Civitae Eclesiae nostrae Belynes" - our episcopal city. In 1441 Beiuș is ranked as free city " libera civitas Belynes". On the 28th of October 1451 a document issued by the office of bishopric in the name of John Vitez of Zdrena (bishop of Oradea between 1445-1465, Chancellor of Iancu de Hunedoara, humanist, diplomat) names Beiuș a free city, and a fair ,Oppidium, taking it out of the jurisdiction of the castle Finiș. Based on this certificate, Beius receives the right to elect annually a judge and 12 jurors, for them to judge cases and apply punishments, and use the seal with the inscription "Sigillum oppidi belenesi." The privileges obtained were preserved and renewed in 1491 , 1495, 1503, 1548, by Sigismund Bathory in1558 and finally in 1782 by Emperor Joseph II.
Returning to history, once the rebuilding of the Finiș Fortress and of the Catholic cathedral in Beiuş, Burgundian craftsmen were colonized on the picturesque streets untill today named Burgundia Mare and Burgundia Mică, and on the two perpendicular streets, Pătăreasca Mare and Mică, at the foot of the hill where standed the cathedral, lived those "venerable patres" vicars brought from Italy by John Vitez of Zdrena. With much pride local people state that these streets "Burgundy and Pătărăşti", are the oldest in the city, but they indeed keep alive the old experience and tradition of the city.
Finiș city castellans did not fully complied with the document issued by Bishop John IV and this lead to the issuance of a document of great importance for the future of Beiuş. Thus, with the Diploma from 1448 he restrains the abuses of the masters of the castles in Beiuş and Finiș. As reflected in the document for any offense relating to Romanian serfs and even the citizens of Beiuș, they were closed in a tower or a wet prison without light. The Diploma issued on the 28th of October 1451 the same bishop exempted the locals from taxes to the Crown and to the feudal fortress lords . Every year the city was entitled that on the day of St. George to choose a county mayor, twelve jurors of the most distinguished and chief inhabitants of the city.
The Royal Diploma awarded to the City by King Vladislav V in 1454, the Diploma issued in 1478 by Bishop Pruis, the Diploma of bishop Dominic Kalmancsehi in 1495 show that Beiuș used to have weekly fairs and local merchants were granted privileges in the surrounding boroughs. The Diploma issued by bishop George Szatmari in 1503 quenches frictions between "târgarii" from Beiuş and episcopal city Suplac (Szeplaki). These are all notable documents on trade-fairs and fairs, on iron and copper mining operations and on the every day life of the population.
After the battle of Mohacs in 1526 Beius played an important role as a political border town and as a strategic center. Documents from those times note the writings of some foreign pilgrims in our lands in the XII XIII century and even later, referring to Beiuş. Spanish Jesuit Alfonso Carrillo (1553-1608) sent on a mission in late December 1590 to gather information on the situation in Transylvania and to make Jesuit propaganda makes references to Beiuş in his writings. The great Turkish scholar Evila Celebi (1611-1684) visited Finiș and Pomezeu cities, and in 1661 the town of Beius about which he wrote: "It is a big city with a lot of streets, between Hungarians and Vlachs, wealthy and owning thriving villages. This town was subscribed to the city of Oradea. Being a very rich place, people as good looking as here are not found in other lands. "
In 1551 Castaldo's mercenaries led by Bernardo Componius d Aldana pillaged villages in the valley of Crisul Negru and Beiuș. The census of 1552 in the District of Beiuş records a number of 420 gates, which meant it was a great district. The 420 gates included in the census consisted of about 840 families and over 7560 inhabitants. Two documents published by the great historian Dimitrie Prodan are of exceptional value concerning the feudal relations in the fields of Beiuş at the end of the sixteenth century. Two assessments, one in 1589 and the other in August 1600, entered obligations for the peasants in the villages: censorship, taxes, gifts, etc. The land record of 1589 includes Beiuș and 15 villages where 541 subjects were enrolled, while the land record of 1600 is more complete and comprises 65 municipalities with 1773 householders. From these documents we learn about peoples basic occupations: agriculture, hunting, fishing, forest work, crafts, exploitation and processing of iron, copper smithing, woodcraft . There are numerous watermills certified, iron and brass foundries. Almost all villages on the Beiuş region were forced to work for these manufactures on account of feudal obligations. Land records of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries reinforce some privileges or grant new ones favoring the development of agriculture and crafts. In conjunction with natural and social facts they will determine the appearance in surrounding villages of crafts some of which are preserved today. In Beiuş the following guilds appeared: tanners, furriers, masons, blacksmiths etc. They will be found in street names until after the middle of the twentieth century: Vasile Lucaciu Street was named "Tanner", Deva street was called "mason", Brandusei street "Fiddler".
On the political and historical plan we can notice a significant relationship between the first unifier of Romania – Mihai Viteazul (the Brave) and Beiuș. Thus, in 1599 after the victory at Selimbar, Mihai Viteazul seized the Fortress of Finiş. On the 1st of August 1600 MihaiViteazul notified to Bartholomew Somogy, the mayor of Beiuș at that time, the danger provoked by about 700 Polish soldiers and Cossacks coming from Ineu, sent by Sigismund Báthory to rob. Somogy comes in their way and banishes them avoiding depredations and murders. The episode demonstrates the thesis that between M. Viteazul and Somogy there were old links. Also, in December 1600, Mihai Viteazul on his way to Vienna stops for 2 days at Beius and let some of his soldiers to guard the city under the command of Demetrius Buzinca.
In 1618 and 1660 Beius is devastated by the Turks. In 1661 Beiuș comes under Turkish rule until being annexed to Oradea „pașalâc„ untill 1686. În 1686 the Austrian army drive the Turks away from Beiuş and the Turkish oppression was thus replaced by the Austrian one.
In 1711 Kuruc uprising led by Franciska Rákóczi II occurs, and Beiuș sees the fightings between rebels and the imperial army. In the whirl of these social movements Pomezeu and Beiuş cities become kuruc base application. Groups of Serbs, Habsburg allies, burn Beius two times. A truce concluded on May 1, 1711, established that all the kuruc cities should be destroyed . "The City that was for centuries shield and defense of this part of the country finds its end." Only a few walls and piles of stone remained out of the once famous fortress.
In the eighteenth century in Beius and its sorroundings, agriculture, crafts, commerce are blooming. Thus at the end of the century and the beginning of the new century the district of Beiuș included a fair and 72 villages. This century also experiences a period of asserting of the Romanian element in the political and social life. in 1769 the Empress Maria Theresa entitles Romanians to change their residence. A large number are established in Beiuş where they learn trades and deals with commerce. The eighteenth century represents the entry into modernity for the city of Beiuș. From here one can talk about the city's cultural development.
Towards the end of the eighteenth century the Ottomans place was taken by the Habsburgs and the Transylvanian Diet was forced to accept the "protectorate" of the Emperor of Austria. On the 4th of December 1691, "Leopold Diploma" was developed, which formed the basis for the organization of Transylvania until 1867. It guaranteed for the existing institutions of the province. Considered as a constitution, itr established in Transylvania 18 points regarding the relations with the government in Vienna and the principle of government. The establishment of Habsburg rule made way for the Roman Catholic Church to reoccupy lost positions. The Roman Catholic Diocese of Oradea (1692) and Alba Iulia (1715) were re-established, their estates were returned, donations were made and Jesuit monks were brought back to the principality as missionaries. By attracting Romanians in union with the Church of Rome the catholic church seeked firstly to multiply the number of Catholics and thus increase the political role of the Transylvanian Catholic state (Catholic Representatives in the Diet), because its members were elected by the number of believers of every denomination, and secondly to break the link between Romanians from Transylvania and those across the Carpathians. "Giving this situation Romanians were forced" to accept conditioned faith union with the Church of Rome. " The lack of Nemes in Beiuşului Country, the existence of a single feudal - Catholic Diocese of Oradea made Calvin influences felt weak. Needing the Romanians for labour, the Catholic Church will ensure them a better way of living.
About a Romanian organizing element we can only speak in the first decades of the eighteenth century .. "We Romanians, people of villages - says Pavel Constantin - besides some village occupations that we had here round the town we did not have any higher social status ... "so then" nothing speaks in this time of a church organization here in Beiuş, the only force we gathered around in old times was a modest altar, which in the same time was not only the altar of law but also that of the Romanian language ". This explains why the first copists of religious books "wandering over the mountains in Bihor do not stop at Beiuş but in modest villages as Rabagani, Saca, Josani, Gurbesti, Cabesti ... and that first year of deanery before 1503 is at Seghiste, then at Vaşcău. While in Moldovia freedom of religion expressed in imperial edicts - Rules Nation Illyria in 1770 Educationes Ratio of 1777 and the edict "tolerantiae" 1781 was at its early beginnings, the villages in Beius Country had already church organizations .
As for Beius, though its church organization would come later it will become the orthodox resistance fight center. This was favored by the settlement here since the early years of the eighteenth century of a large number of Macedo - Romanians and Greeks, rich people, very hardworking and good managers. Not being subordinated to the feudal lord, they enjoyed freedom of movement, giving Beiuș a major boost from the economic and cultural-religious point of view.
The beginnings of the Orthodox Church are controversial. Constantin Paul states that "Romanians in Beiuş couldn t build a bell tower untill 1726" and Peter E. Papp notes that "a footnote on the edge of a Psalter says that in1733 an orthodox chapel and a belfry for three bells was raised”. Titus Roșu reinforces this statement reminding Popa Joseph, a priest, painter, writer, bookbinder, who built the wooden church in Beiuş in 1733, which lasted until the construction of the stone one at the late eighteenth century ". Finally Father Theodore Cios tells us that "among 100 Romanian Orthodox churches in Bihor, mentioned in 1724, Beiuş was endowed with one church having bells." Leaving aside the data in question the temporal certification of this church has had an important role ever since. We can find information about Beiuş and other religious centers of the Crișul Negru valley in a manuscript from Michael of Beiuş in 1695. We learn from there that at that time there were three important religious and cultural centers in Beius Country- Beiuş, Seghiste and Șuști, that the Orthodox church here developed an intense activity of translation of religious books from Slavonic into Romanian, of copying religious books, and activities for the study of reading and writing. All these certify that the Orthodox church had a good organization even in the late seventeenth century. Titus Roșu estimates that there was a superior ecclesiastical authority in Beiuș meant to manage all the priests and the monks in the region. Priest Joseph recorded on a Slavonic book: in 1733 y ... we began making the Romanian church." This wooden church was the place of worship and meditation until 1784 when the pressent church on the hill was built.
The Greek-Catholic Romanians had similar concerns. The vicar bishop Meletius Covaci requests to the Council in 1756 to create "People's Schools" in Oradea, Beiuș and Vașcău, to which the Empress responds favorably. The fact is that in the middle of the eighteenth century in Beiuş there was a school where both Greek Catholic children and Orthodox ones studied together. The school is certified by a document preserved in the State Archives in Oradea were we find the names of 12 students and of the teacher, Nyekeforo Papp. Emperess Tereza paid attention to setting up schools for the purpose of educating the people belonging to the monarchy and in this purpose she built schools in every village, giving the inhabitants of the villages the obligation to send their children to school. Her interest for educating people had at least two reasons: people´s total ignorance as a result of the long domination of the Turks and the need for hardworking obedient soldiers.
In 1719 the Townhall of Beiuş is built. In 1733 the Romanian Greek Catholic Domain of Oradea is settled and located in Beiuş where it had its administration. This union meant prosperity for the population of many settlements in Beiuşului region. În 1742 the Roman Catholic Parish is established at Beiuş, in 1779 the Reformed Parish is settled, then in 1780, the Greek Catholic Parish was established in Beiuş and finally in 1797 the Orthodox Parish was established. In 1797 the Greek Catholic Parish of Beiuş was settled.
On the 5th of July, 1787 Emperor Joseph II strengthens the city´s right to hold four fairs throughout the year: the first on the 16th of February, the second on the 4th of May, the third on the 3rd of August, the fourth on November the 4th and a weekly market every Thursday. The result is a great economic and demographic development, which will pave the way for the role that Beiuș will play in the nineteenth century in this part of the country. The city will experience intense and rich cultural and educational activities. What will especially boost the cultural development of the city is the opening of a secondary school by the bishop Samuil Vulcan in 1828. It bore the inscription, "education iuventuti huius provinciae" and it widely opened the doors to the education of the youth from the neighboring provinces. As noted Constantin Paul: "The act of the bishop in a time of uncertainty and endless wars at the beginning of the nineteenth century becomes thus an heroic act and historically very important in the life of the Transylvanian Romanians. ..Over 338 Romanian villages only within Bihor disctrict without any trace of Romanian superior school. and not to mention Arad, in the close vicinity, with a population exclusively Romanian. ..and then Satmar and Maramures, not to mention Banat. Throughout these areas there was no Romanian national secondary school. "
We can surely say that Beiuș was present in all the major events in the history of our nation: In David Prodan´s opinion, the locals from Beiuș sheltered Horea's wife who was wanted by the authorities at that time to be arrested. During the 1848 revolution the city is represented by the deputy John Dragos at the Budapest Parliament. He negotiated an agreement between Hungarian and Romanian revolutionaries in the spring of 1849. Professor Ion Munteanu, participant in the revolution, was present there too.
Beiuş Court is founded in 1851 and in 1855 the Romanian Orthodox Deanery of Beiuș was settled.
Romanians from Beiuș were almost constantly represented in the Parliament in Budapest. Between 1866-1872 they had Dimitrie Ionescu, who fought for "Samuil Vulcan" School. Partenie Cosma, a remarkable fighter for the rights of Romanians, was the representative in Budapest Parliament between 1872-1881. Later his name is related with the establishment and activity of "Astra" organisation in Sibiu, of the Bank "Albina" in Sibiu and of the creation of the Romanian National Party, the party program of which he drafted. We also mention Vasile Lucaciu (the Lion from Sisesti), first rank personality in the history of fighting for the Great Union of December the 1st, in 1918.
After the end of the 1848 revolution the economic and social life of the city sees major changes. People from all over Crisana, Banat and Apuseni Mountains headed to Beiuș fairs bringing their products for trade. Beiuş is a central point in Beiuşului depression, that is why many historians call it The Country of Beiuş. The fairs of the year also had a social character as plans were made here for the labor market in the agricultural areas. One of these was "the servants´ fair " that used to took place on Sângeorz (the 23th of April).
A remarkable event in the cultural life of Romanians in Beiuş was the establishment in 1871 of the Romanian Casini organisation, at Partenie Cosma's initiative. This will spread the idea of culture in Country Beiuşului and the fight to preserve the national spirit and to obtain the unity of all Romanians. Romanian Casina was considered the "mother of all other companies and cultural association created in Beiuş. The entire socio-political and cultural life of the city pulsed in and around this Casine: public library, conferences, costumes, craftsmen and traders meetings. An important event organized by Casini members was a fundraising for the brothers who fought in the War for Independence across the Carpathians.
The Romanian Casini organisation comprised members from all across the country of Beiuş, which proves that the city was a major center for polarizing educational and cultural needs of its inhabitants. Regarding the War of Independence it should be noted that the garrison from Beiuş participated in this war and some of its officers were awarded by the High Decree of May 22nd, 1878. In order to promote cultural ideals and the idea of national unity the intellectuals of the town together with village priests and teachers create numerous other companies and Cultural Association: the Union of the Romanian Craftsmen, Astra from Beiuș, "Lyra", The Union of Romanian women in Beiuş. These worked not only in Beiuș but also in the surrounding villages where "sections" branches " were created.
The establishment in March 1911 of the Bookstore and Printing House "Doina" of Beius was an important event. For more than three decades and a half these institutions will spread in Beiuşului country hundreds of prints and as many testimonies of rich Romanian spirituality in this part of the country.
As we already know, Romanian school in Beiuş contributed to the formation and affirmation in the social-cultural and political life of the country of prominent personalities, among which me mention two metropolitans of Transylvania, 12 members of the Romanian Academy, including one, Alexandru Roman who had a key contributor in establishing the highest scientific and cultural center of the country and other politicians, academics and specialists of high educational quality. The educational field in Beiuș experienced a continuous development. 120 years sooner, in 1886, having two study classes and several crafts, a school called " The Industrial School for Apprentices” functioned. In1896 the School for Girls was founded which will become the Greek Catholic High School for Girls. In 1922 the School of Teaching opened , the current Pedagogical High School Nicolae Bolcaş. All these have contributed, together with companies and cultural associations, to improve the cultural life of Beiuș inhabitants. Starting from 1861 important cultural and artistic activities across the country of Beiuş took place, companies and cultural associations were organized: "Samuil Vulcan" Society (1862), Romanian Casina (1871), Astra of Beiuș (1898), Lira songs (1905) The Union of Romanian women(1918) and others. Numerous newspapers and magazines appeared both in Romanian and Hungarian: Belenyesi es videke (1900), Belenyesi Újság (1908-1914), Beiuș (1 June 1921), Bihor Calendar (1921-1927), the Observatory (1927-1935), Rows (1934-1936), Crișul Negru (1936-1938) and others of lesser importance .
To complete the picture of the actions carried out for the national union, we must mention the election of Vasile Lucaciu, " the Lion of Sisesti" as a member of Parliament in Budapest, in August 27, 1907. Referring to the campaigning and the election of Vasile Lucaciu the newspaper "Fight " in Budapest wrote: " Beiuş town, that through hard work and sacrifice you had done this miracle, old nest of Romanian princes, source of enlightement that gave us Samuil Vulcan and Mihai Pavel. Today you deserve gratitude, you, the first of the Romanian towns and villages in Bihor ". For decades, this polarization around Beiuș of the entire Romanian community is continuously increasing and it will embody the struggle for the gold dream of all Romanians, the unification with the mother country.
This polarization becomes more evident at the end of the last century and during the between wars period. On October 31st , 1918, the Central National Romanian Council and on November 3rd , this Council in Beiuş has dr. Ioan Ciordaş as president. Previously, on October, the Romanian National Guard had been set, composed of 20 fighters. It subsequently received a serious military organization with 70 soldiers and some officers under the command of captain Ioan Vostinar. The locals received with great joy the result of their struggle – to reintroduce the Romanian language as the language of instruction in "Samuil Vulcan" High School. As a recognition of his struggle and his personal merits in organizing and managing these activities in Beiuş dr. John Ciordaş was elected member of the Romanian National Party in its central leadership. He was among those who drafted and adopted the Proclamation of Unification with the country on the 12th of October 1918. On the 27th of November 1918 five delegates to the Grand National Assembly of Alba Iulia were elected, including Ioan Ciordas and Ilarion Crişan. In the same day and the same place the Union of Romanian Women from Beiuș elected their representatives at the Grand National Assembly of Alba Iulia.
The majority of cultural and professional associations from Beiuş sent delegates to Alba Iulia. While the representatives of Beiuș were listening at Alba Iulia to the Union Proclamation, back home in Beiuș the 1st of December 1918 was celebrated with all the solemnity and with all the joy possible. Upon returning home the delegates were expected with a triumphant reception. On the 26th of December 1918 Beiuş held a big rally which was attended both by townspeople and "an impressive crowd of peasants' from the Beiuşului Country, occasion with which Peter E. Papp, the Romanian Orthodox archpriest of Beiuş spoke about the meaning of the 1st December 1918 act.
Although the Grand National Assembly of Alba Iulia decided upon the union of Transylvania with Romania, the Entente representatives agreed to impose a provisional demarcation line through which Bihor and its neighboring counties remained under the administration of the Austrian-Hungarian Monarchy. This situation and the outbreak of the Hungarian socialist revolution following the Russian model, unleashed actions of terror directed to Romanians. Revolutionaries and the commandement of Beiuş are guilty of crimes committed in places like Sighistel, Fanate, Câmpani de Sus, Câmpani de Jos, Lunca, Vascău, Cârpinet , Finis, Beiuş.
Among those horribly killed were the heads of the unionist movement, the martyrs of Beiuş, Bihor, Romania, Dr. Ioan Ciordaş and dr. Nicolae Bolcaş of Beiuş, Nicolae Bogdan of Vașcau, Gheorghe Palcut from Finiș and a large number of peasants from the villages mentioned above.
To those studying the economic life of Beius and its region and who seem to be tempted to downplay the results, we have to draw their attention over the fact that since the middle of the fourteenth century the Country of Beius was a main domain for the Roman Catholic Diocese of Oradea and its administration was based in Beius. It developed in the area the primary wood processing, mining and iron copper and precious metals processing activities, marble, various manufactories and crafts like blacksmithing, tanning, shoemaking, carpentry, tailoring, commerce, etc., where a significant number of employees were working. In the second half of the eighteenth century the guilds were also constituted. Due to the economic development of the time since the middle of the fourteenth century the Austrian authorities granted Beiuș the right to hold 4 fairs over the year and a weekly Thursday market.
After 1900 the small industry appears in Beius as well, expressed in several units with between 25-30 employees: the Power Plant (1910), the Ice Factory and the oil mill SA (1931) the Brick Factory , the Alcohol and Biscuits Factory etc. Other units with economic interest occur including: The Agricultural Cooperative "Beiuşană" (1935), The Forest Cooperative "Beiuşului Tree" (1937), The Cooperative of teachers "Doina " (1944 ) and others.
After the First World War a country's economic recovery was required in Beiuș. Industry lacked, a poor population had insufficient means of living. The situation of the working class worsens , the workers used to demand the intervention of the newspaper "Beius" in order to find a job. The only source of income was working in the forest, but the government stops the exploitation which severely hits especially the mountain area. The Agricultural reform in 1921 brings some improvements in the living conditions. In Beius 144 people become the owners of land within the built up areas and 108 people are owners of lands outside the built up areas. Although poor in conception, especially in implementing the land reform, it contributed to the development of capitalist relations of production in agriculture and it improved the financial situation of a part of the peasants. During the interwar period the capitalist relations of production are felt in Beiuş as well.
In Beius there are about 119 traders and as many craftsmen for a population of 4293 inhabitants at the end of 1930. During the Vienna Dictate, Bihor disctrict lost its richest areas, that have become sources of raw materials, food and agriculture for the armies of occupation This is an extremely difficult period for Beiuş as being placed in the part that was not transferred, it becomes the county seat where all authorities and county institutions moved. Beiuș had also to deal with a large number of refugees in the conditions in which its own city residents were not wealthy. In a document dated 13 February 1940 it is noted that Beius has "5070 people in the city out of which 978 family heads. It had the following institutions : the Regional People's Bank Vintila Bratianu, the Agricultural Cooperative "Beiuşana" and the Cooperative Crișul Negru. There are 778 houses built out of brick and a few out of wood ... There is a communal dispensary and a hospital, three pharmacies ... There are 4 primary schools with seven classes: the public primary school with 223 pupils, the Roman Catholic Primary School with 26 students, the Reformed primary school with 35 students and the Israelite school with 31 students ... two Orthodox churches, two Greek Catholic churches , one Catholic, one Reformed, one synagogue, one house of worship for Baptists and 6 chapels. ". This lasts until after October 1944, when the Oradea is set free and the administration returns to its old places.
Trade was mostly represented by the national trade, the Cooperative "Incoop" and by the private trade that included: textile shops, metalwork, glass items, stores, pubs, restaurants, confectioners, tobacconists, bookshops, cooperatives for all . Workshops: brazier, bakeries, tailors, shoemakers, watchmakers, skinners, compactors, hairstyle shops, saddlery, coopers, carpenters, blacksmiths, roping, glaziers, electrical shops, plumbing, photo shops, hairdressers, butchers, tinkers, shoemakers, tanners, carpenters, wheelwright shops, woodcocks, furniture shops, chemical shops. Cooperatives: "Victoria", "Doina", "Beiuşului Fir tree", "Crișul", "Beiuşana" - popular bank. Health situation: 9 doctors, 6 pharmacists and 4 dentists. Public Institutions: Beiuş Prefecture, City Hall, mixed Court, Commissioner of Police, Security Office, Department of gendarmes, tax collectors, Service tax audit, financial Garda, Agricultural forests Bureau, College of boys, College of girls, Pedagogical School, school of apprentices, public primary school, Reformed primary school, labor Inspectorate, PTT Office, a kindergarten attached to the primary school, kindergarten attached to the pedagogical school, a public hospital, Human Health Service Veterinary Service, Warehouse MAT, social insurance office, railway station, Call Office, artillery Regiment 35, Romanian Orthodox Church, the Romanian Greek Catholic Church, Roman Catholic Church, Reformed Church, Israelite Church, the Local Unions United .
In the city also functioned: a theater, a cinema hall, a hotel, a home for apprentices, two centers of milk, a canteen for poor children that worked under the patronage of the municipality and was subsidized by it.
A document from July 1st , 1955 stated that in 1950 in Beiuş there were1950 building spread over an area of 8570 ha. On the 15th of September the town had 6150 inhabitants, out of which 2971 men, 3179 women, and 1877 families. On November 24th , 1955 in the city there were three cars, one bus, eight trucks and 4 road tractors in the national sector and one tractor and three privately owned motorcycles.
The economic and demographic developement in Beius was extremely slow, a situation that persists until the administrative-territorial reform of 1968, when in the city a number of territorial institutions are located, as well as some sections or services of productive units in Oradea : Office for Work, Office ADAS, Office of water Management, deposits UJCOOP, territorial Court, District Court, Branch National Bank and others, to offer thus new jobs. Some sections with productive nature: Shipyard Road, the investment service MTF 1, ITSA, TCLO yard. By 1972 the unit with the highest number of employees was a local industry factory having about 380 employees. In 1972 the furniture factory was put into work, starting with 500 employees and in 1990 it already reached to 1,500 employees. In 1977 the drills factory functions with over 860 employees. More than 50 percent of employees who worked in enterprises and institutions were commuting.
The revolution of 1989, found Beius, as it was, and has remained: quiet. There were no reprisals, no violence took place, and on December the 22 a large meeting was held in the city center. As a mayor, eng. Laurentiu Dale was appointed by vox populi , and soon, by forming NSFC, through the involvement of new or re-established political parties and of the youth organization "Forum", the city had an administrative authority.
The free elections that followed successively starting with 1990, elected the following mayors: Ioan Daraban (1990-1992), Ion Popa (1992-1996), Octavian Codreanu (1996 -2000), Silviu Odobasianu (2000-2004; 2004- 2008). Now, after the elections of June 2008, the mayor is Adrian Nicolae Domocos.
The changes after 1989, the transition to a market economy, have disrupted the economic life of Beiuş. From the economic and industrial setting disappeared specific units of the former socialist industries and others have greatly reduced activity: handicraft cooperatives, consumer cooperatives, SC Beiuşana etc. In these particularly difficult circumstances due to the interest and the efforts made in recent years by the Community administration, the local business environment was encouraged to attract foreign investors. Beius thus faced and is facing one of the lowest rates of unemployment in the country . Currently the municipality operates over 340 businesses including quite an important number to have between 300 and 500 employees.
The discovery and the enhancement of the geothermal water resource, turned Beius into the first major city in the country heated with geothermal water. The project implementation granted with 4.3 million euros will enable the connection of most households to the benefits of the thermal water. An ambitious project is ACVATERM park, on an area of 10 ha, which will boost the health tourism in Beiuş, in close cohabitation with mountaineering practiced in areas known in Beiuşului Country and in the Western Carpathians.